How to Repair “Runtime Error 481”

The runtime error is one of the most common Windows problems that keep popping up and keeping your system from running smoothly and perfectly, even a small or a single error in the process will leave your system in a knot. This makes it even more important for any user to know how to fix runtime error 481. In order to fix or diagnose the problem correctly everyone should first know what the actual purpose of the runtime processes. It is an integral and essential part of the Windows system details to manage the handling of many services as well as many different software as running on the Windows platform. Since, the file actually handles a lot of information and settings at a time it is very prone to attack by many different viruses, malware and even spyware.

The problems – there can be many different symptoms to the errors related to the runtime process. The symptoms can range from a simple delayed operation of the software to much more complicated system freezes and error messages. This sort of problems may arise from many different factors starting from corruption of the system file due to a virus infection or any other malicious software to defective and invalid system registry entries.

Though the problems are varied but still the answer to the question remains pretty simple.

The solutions – the solution to the runtime error 481 can be many forms, as the problem itself may arise from many different sources. Though it is widely accepted that the most common reason for such errors is a corrupted registry entries but still many tools and software is required to be used in order to properly remove the problem.

  • If the error actually results after installing a new software always make sure to uninstall and reinstall the software to check whether the error was caused by it.
  • Is the process file is corrupted beyond repair it is always safe to replace the file with an original one from any windows XP CD using the system file Checker tool. This can also be achieved from the recovery console is the system has completely crashed due to the error and cannot be started in a normal way.
  • As the most common problems that can give out runtime related errors is widely identified as defective registry entries, it is best recommended that you always check your system with a proper registry cleaner before taking any drastic step.

Even if all of the above methods fail, you always have the option of reinstalling your operating system in order to solve the runtime error 481. Though this may seem the simplest one but the safest and wisest one would be to use a registry cleaner regularly and keep your system clean and healthy.

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Advantages to Android Game Development

The industry of mobile game development has introduced a very important aspect to the market – the ability to conceptualize, develop, and release video games on devices with far more success and ease than ever before. And with the Android app marketplace only requiring a one-time fee for submitting an application, the cost becomes almost negligible to put the product out for millions of customers to find. Even the submission process is drastically shorter than on most other smartphones, as the app regulation is far more lenient for the Android OS.

Another drawing point for developing games on Android devices is the programming language featured- Java. Java has long been one of the most popular programming languages ​​for video game developers, and that makes it extremely easy for the average programmer to pick up Android development for the first time. Compared to most other mobile platforms, which usually sport modified or newly invented languages, the learning curve is decreed to nearly nothing, so a new developer can complete a game in a fraction of the time.

Another unique aspect to Android game development is the lack of standardization in the droid phone family. As the Android OS is not licensed to a single mobile phone making company, the phones themselves can vary to an extreme degree in terms of features and hardware specifications. While one device may have a fully functional A-GPS and HDMI video compatibility, another may have a QWERTY keyboard and no GPS at all. While this is certainly appealing to some developers, as they are likely to find a phone that will meet their hardware needs reasonably, it will also restrict the potential audience, as some phones will not be able to support the more complex applications.

When the game development process has finally reached the point where it can be released to the public, the developer is presented with yet another choice- which market would the game be most visible in? Unlike the iOS, there are numerous marketplaces and app stores for Android phones, each one with it's own advantages and disadvantages. From the basic Android marketplace, built to only display the apps compatible with the phone currently being used, to the Amazon app store, which offers a different free app every day, the myriad of marketing strategies can be almost daunting, which makes it all the More useful that an application can almost always be entered into multiple marketplaces without issue. However, whenever it makes sense to spread attention across several different fields is another question entirely.

The Android game development process overall really gives the most variety on the smartphone market. From start to finish, strategies can be hand-tailored to the developer's desires, making the game as close to the original concept as currently possible. While the audience may not be as large as that of iPhone users, the Android presents itself as a strong contender, purely through its accessibility. And with the largest variety of smartphones on the current market, the possibilities for development are inexhaustible, and continued releases can only add to the capabilities the platform has to offer.

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History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are critical for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to multiple-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a critical part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequenced Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System / 390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM's System / 360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called "Bus architecture". The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The "channels" are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. And so are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.

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What is the Argus Safety Database?

The Argus safety database is a key part of the Argus Safety 3.0.1 pharmacovigilance software system. In a nutshell, pharmacovigilance is defined as the monitoring of any possible adverse effects of both herbal remedies and synthetic drugs as they are used.

The digital database is used to help companies ensure compliance with global regulations regarding pharmacovigilance and related activities. As a comprehensive pharmaceutical software system, it supports pharmacovigilance business processes that take place in both the pre- and post-marketing phases.

The Argus database is hosted in a data center that is ISO-9001-certified, and operates according to the security standards promulgated by FDA guidelines. By managing this data center, a pharmaceutical firm or laboratory may obtain maximum physical data security as well as access to effective data backup and recovery procedures whenever these services are needed.

ACCOVION, the full-service contract research organization that offers pharmacovigilance as a core service, has configured the Argus database with customized and validated rules to expedite safety reporting. This setup enables generated safety reports to be sent to regulatory investigators and central ethics committees.

The system covers a wide range of the most commonly used forms, including the American FDA MedWatch 3500A form for drugs, the VAERS form for vaccines, the CIOMS-I form, and many others utilized in European countries.

The standard setup in use by the Argus safety database system includes coding with current World Health Organization and MedDRA data dictionaries, as well as older versions of these dictionaries and many others to meet user requirements.

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Strengths and Weaknesses of Waterfall Approach for Software Development

One of the most famous and widely used approaches for software development is the waterfall model. Waterfall approach is an old technique that has been in use for quite some time, but in modern times agile approach is gaining prominence.

Waterfall approach, as is evident from the name, refers to a systematic approach where one step comes after the other. It cannot go the other way round. The process works like the waterfall effect that flows in one direction, which is from up to down.

In this process the life cycle of the development process is predetermined. All the steps are defined before the start of the project. The approach is predictive, where the team is well aware of the order of each step and therefore works accordingly. It starts from the requirement analysis, the design phase and then proceeds on to the implementation, testing and the maintenance phases.

The waterfall approach can be quite beneficial for those who are quite clear on their requirements. A planned approach works for them because they want fixed processes and budget. Where fixed processes are beneficial, at the same time they can be inconvenient at times. In cases where the client is not clear on the requirements and finds in the middle of the project that he/she wants to change course, this approach can prove to be quite problematic.

Another point of the waterfall approach is that the requirement analysis and design of architectural structure can consume a lot of time. Extensive research is done initially as the next phases depend completely on the planning strategy. However, the good thing is that everything is thoroughly worked out and each aspect is studied beforehand. The developers in such cases know what is expected of them.

A waterfall approach works in a systematic order, with one step following the other and the testing phase comes in the end. If there are any big problems encountered in the testing phase, it means a long process to make the amends. The process can consume extra time and money.

We cannot conclude that one approach is better than the other, as every method would have its own strengths and weaknesses. The determination of success for each method depends on how it is being used and whether the approach suits the scope of work being undertaken. While one approach may be suitable for a particular project, it might become totally useless under different circumstances. For example, some believe that agile methods are not well suited for offshore development, as they require a closer contact and communication that is not possible in an offshore project.

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Advantages of Antispyware Programs

Much like the antivirus programs, now a days anti spyware programs also is a must if you are browsing the net. Most of the antivirus programs provide a good job by taking care of the computer viruses. However, many of them fail to detect the spyware which gets installed onto the PC when connected to the internet. This is where Anti spyware programs comes to help. They do a good job by protecting our computers by identifying the spyware and promptly remove them.

There are so many antispyware programs are available in the market. Both in the Online as well as near to your computer retail showroom. However, you have to ensure that you buy a good Anti spyware program which fulfills the requirements what it promises. Also, make sure to check that the software works on your Operating System. Most of them work on Windows Operating system; however, there is no harm in double checking the same.

Some of the characteristics of a good antispyware program is as below.

Real time scanning

Real time scanning is the heart of these type of programs. The program once installed should reside on your system tray and should be able to do a real time scan in the background. This way it should be able to identify all kinds of threats like Adware, spyware, Trojans and the harmful key loggers.

Automatic Updates

There is no point in having an Antispyware software program which does not update the spyware definitions automatically and at periodic intervals.

Customer Support

Most of the time you will not be require to call up their helpdesk as the software will work automatically provided if the operating system is compatible and all the installation prerequisites are met. However, if you run across any installation problems or some kind of bugs customer service comes in handy.

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How to Watch Satellite TV Online Without Any Satellite Dish

Anyone can watch satellite TV online without any satellite dish system nowdays. In case you do not know, this article would show you one time-tested and another new revolutionary way to watch satellite TV on the internet without having to set up a satellite dish.

Many of the older generation grew up in an era of satellite dishes, especially for those who live in the rural areas where cable do not exist. The dishes are transmitters and together with receivers are conduits for TV signals to be displayed as visual images and pictures on our TV screens. However, they are not always pleasant. Set up can be tough and definitely not for those who are not good with their hands or have poor technical skills. Satellite dishes have grown smaller in recent years but they used to be larger than 6 foot monsters in earlier days. If that irks you, you would be relieved to know that you can watch satellite TV online just like many others without satellite dish system.

What are the hardware and PC requirements you need to set up your 'satellite-dish less' PC satellite online TV?

1. A Good PCTV Card

A PCTV card can be installed onto your computer to make your computer work like a satellite television set. Such cards come in the form of internal or external hardware. If you are familiar with the inside of a computer, then an internal card could be a good choice since they tend to be cheaper and more affordable. However, do not bother yourself when you find it too troublesome to fix it internally because there are external cards that work more like plug-and-play gadgets. They cost more and can set you back easily by a few hundreds. As long as your PC has a spare USB port, this option to watch satellite TV online is open to you.

2. PC Requirements

I would suggest you check your systems configuration before you start shopping for a PCTV card. Most cards require a minimum Pentium 3 333MHz system to run well but remember to note down the specifications like RAM, hard disk space, Operating System, etc before you head to the stores.

3. Ready Internet Connection

PCTV cards work well with both dial-up and broadband connections. However, I have a word of advice here. Dial-up transmission runs like a snail and is a really serious party spoiler. You can end up more frustrated than glad that you are watching the program. Go for broadband connection if you can afford to.

Okay, now that we have discussed about the older commonly accepted method to watch satellite TV online, we will look at another new revolutionary technique. This requires the usage of PC satellite TV software which can be downloaded easily. The setup is simple and all it takes is downloading the software and clicking a few buttons before you are ready to watch satellite TV online from more than 3000 channels. Awesome is not it?

For more information on this PC satellite TV software, do a read up at my satellite TV blog.

This article may be freely reprinted or distributed in its entity in any ezine, newsletter, blog or website. The author's name, bio and website links must remain intact and be included with every reproduction.

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Medical Coding History – From Paper to Medial Coding Software

If we define medical coding as the assignment of alphanumerical characters to diagnoses, diseases, and treatments, then medical coding has been traced back to the 1600s in England with the London Bills of Mortality. A more standardized system of coding was developed for classifying death at the tail end of the 19th century. In 1893, Jacque Bertillon, a statistician, created the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death, a system which was eventually adopted by 26 countries at the beginning of the 20th century. Shortly after the Bertillon Classification system was implemented, people began discussing the possibility of expanding the system beyond mortality as a way of tracking diseases.

By the middle of the 20th century, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a goal of a single global classification system for disease and mortality, entitled the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD). This classification system is updated every 10 years. The latest revision, ICD-10, is scheduled for adoption in the United States in 2013.

What started out as a small set of medical codes has evolved into a complex system that was initially standardized by the American Medical Association back in 1966 with current procedure codes (CPT) codes that are updated annually.

In the late 1970s, the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) was developed based on CPT. HCPCS has three levels of codes: Level One is the original CPT system. Level Two codes are alphanumeric and include non-physician services such as ambulances and other transportation as well as patient devices such as prosthetic devices. Level Three codes were developed as local codes, and were discontinued in 2003 in order to keep all codes relevant worldwide.

Recently, medical coding systems have been expanded to include other medical specialties. For example, there are coding systems related to disabilities, the dental field, prescription drugs, and mental health.

As the coding systems have become more complex and diverse, the need for training of medical coders has grown exponentially. Private training schools and public colleges throughout the country have developed certification programs. In order to be awarded a certificate, students must obtain a two-year degree from an accredited medical coding school and pass an exam given by the AHIMA.

Over the past 20 years, many coding processes have shifted from a paper-based system to a computer-based system using medical coding software and medical billing software. Many companies sell complete medical software-based coding solutions and myriad of products for specific medical disciplines, such as products that are specifically tailored to skilled nursing facilities, physicians, hospitals, surgery, cardiology, and more.

As medical facilities and professionals begin preparing for the conversion to ICD-10 in 2013, the need for more sophisticated medical coding software solutions and qualified medical coders will continue to grow.

CPT is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.

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Computer Engineer Salary

A report by CNNmoney states that students who majored in computer engineering were the top earners of the class of 2011. On top of that according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for computer software engineers is expected to grow by nearly 38% by 2016 You may have just stumbled upon your new career!

There are two types of engineers, hardware and software. A hardware engineer deals with physical components. They research, design, and test the physical components of a computer including circuit boards, chips, and keyboards. A software engineer, called developers, create programs for users to perform task. They create the software that translates the commands from applications into instructions that the hardware can understand. They create the operating systems and computer interfaces for desks and consumer electronics.

95% of jobs are located in metropolitan areas. Positions are located in research labs and manufacturing labs. Some work in computer system design firms, research and develop firms, or federal government. Just as there is a range of potential work environments you may end up being in, there are also a large variety of things you may be creating programs for. Computer engineers create on computers, cell phones, navigational systems in your car, video games, and etc. If you're creative, love computers, and do not mind making a lot of money in the process then this just might be for you!

Some of the highest income makers coming directly out of college are graduates in the computer engineering field. This is a great incentive to buckled down and stay focused on those late nights studying in your dorm. This will literally pay off .. BIG TIME! The average salary for computer engineer job postings nationwide are 29% higher than average salaries for all jobs nationwide. Sound good yet? Let's get into the specifics.

The overall computer engineer salary is $ 87,000. To be even more specific let's discuss what you can expect if you enter involved in hardware or software. Starting with the low end of what you can expect. As a software engineer the lowest 10% average $ 45.44 / hr or $ 57,810 annually. The highest 10% average $ 65.28 or $ 135,780. As a hardware engineer the percentages or a slight bit higher. A hardware computer engineer salary on the low end can on average expect $ 48.73 / hr or $ 62,400. The highest 10% of hardware engineers make $ 70.07 / hr or $ 147,610. Not a bad day's work!

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Different Types of Computer Repair Services

Our dependency towards technology is increasing day by day. Even a minor problem in the operating system disrupts our life and hampers our work. With the development of new technology, there also comes many technical problems such as virus infections, spyware attacks on the operating system, networks issues, and hardware failures. Therefore, fast and efficient troubleshooters are always needed to fix all your technical problems without disabling your work.

With the indispensable use of computers in our daily lives, we can not imagine encountering an issue that will leave us without our personal computers thus; We seek to have the computer service immediately. But due to the busyness of life, it is not possible for us to go to a computer service centers every time and get the system repaired leaving you days without a computer. Seeing today's need, there are many efficient and fast troubleshooters available online that will solve your problem in a fraction of time. Many of us do not understand need for professional computer repair services and try to solve the system related problem by themselves. Before going to any of the computer repair service sites, it is very important to be aware of the various types of services that are offered by the computer repair service centers:

1. IT services like network installation and configuration (LAN / WAN setup).

2. Virus & spyware removal. Installation of anti-virus software for a proactive approach to external attacks.

3. Hardware repair: Laptop / Mac / PC, printer, scanner, motherboard; CD / DVD ROM installation etc.

4. Problems related to Website development and presentation, graphic designing

5. Firewall and email security setup.

6. Windows OS installation and troubleshooting

7. Data backup and recovery

8. Tutorials to employees for solving small problems in-house

So, These are some of the services offered by the service providers. Before hiring any of the online computer repair services, it is very important to check the various types of services offered by them. So that you do not need to switch to different computer repair services sites for different services. It is also very important to check that there is a team of expert technicians for solving computer related problems individually, as this will help in solving the problem fast and efficiently. It is better to switch to such online computer repair services that you avail with the guarantee of fixing the problem fast else money back. As such, promises will pressurize the technicians to work efficiently and fix the problem quickly.

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